For so long – for too long – culture only has had the weapons of the mind to counter the material weapons of the aggressors. Culture is itself not only an emanation of the spirit but also and above all a material thing. And it is with material weapons that it must be defended.

Bertolt Brecht 1937, Speech at the Second Congress of Writers
for the Defense of Culture (post-total destruction of Guernica, Basque town
which had been bombarded for three hours by the Luftwaffe Legion
Condor on April 26, 1937, in what turned out to be a test-run for
future Nazi Germany military campaigns)
Johanna M

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